Как собрать данные в полевом качественном исследовании / How to Collect Data in Qualitative Field Research

Копия Как собрать данные_обл_13 мм (1)_page-0001Наше учебное пособие в соавторстве с Елизаветой Полухиной и Анной Стрельниковой “Как собрать данные в полевом качественном исследовании” вышло в Издательском доме Высшей школы экономики. Пособие содержит информацию о качественных методах сбора эмпирических данных, которые мы применяли в наших совместных проектах последних лет. Книга приглашает читателя к размышлению о методологическом инструментарии и вносит вклад в дискуссию о том, как исследователи могут решать методические проблемы, возникающие в ходе полевой работы.

Вы можете скачать Главу 1, пройдя по ссылке: Проектирование качественного полевого исследования.

Ссылка: А. В. Ваньке, Е. В. Полухина, А. В. Стрельникова. Как собрать данные в полевом качественном исследовании. Нац. исслед. ун-т Высшая школа экономики. — М.: Изд. дом Высшей школы экономики, 2020.

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Our handbook in coauthorship with Elizaveta Polukhina and Anna Strelnikova How to Collect Data in Qualitative Field Research was released by the Publishing house of the Higher School of Economics. The book contains information about qualitative methods of collecting empirical data which we applied in our group projects in recent years. The book invites the reader to reflect on methodological tools and contributes to the debate about how researchers can solve methodical problems emerging during the fieldwork.

You can download Chapter 1 (in Russian) by following the link: Designing Qualitative Field Research.

Reference: Vanke, A., Polukhina, E., Strelnikova, A. (2020). Kak sobrat’ dannye v polevom kachestvennom issledovanii [How To Collect Data in Qualitative Field Research]. Moscow: The Higher School of Economics Publishing House. (In Russian).

Todmorden. A town with a scary name and social hierarchy

Every year after passing our annual reviews, my University friends and I go on a trip to a town with a scary name of Todmorden. Todmorden is located in Northern England on the boundary between Yorkshire and Lancashire. If you split this name into two words, you will get ‘tod’ evoking associations with a German word ‘Tod’ meaning ‘death’ and ‘mor’ resembling a French word ‘mort’, which also means ‘death’. In other words, or playing with words you may easily get something like ‘deadly death’ or ‘death-death-something’. These associations make an aura of the place:D

Todmorden is full of legends about the origin of its name. One of the stories goes back to the 15th century and tells of the Wars of the Roses. Without going into detail, I just say that bloody conflicts occurred between two rival groups of the English elite belonging to the dynasty of Plantagenet, the branch of Lancaster, having a red rose as its symbol, and the branch of York with a symbol of a white rose.

IMG_1108.JPGThe Monument of the Roses, June 2018 © Photo by A. Vanke

Centuries passed, and today local cricket clubs use red and white roses as their emblems rivaling on the cricket pitch only. Now only the monument under the railway arc resembles the Wars of the Roses. However, there are no inscriptions on stone. It is quite hard to understand, whether stone roses refer to the past wars or the present sports competitions. I am guessing to both of them;)

The town and surroundings of Todmorden are also noteworthy by its industrial past and its farming present. In the 19th and 20th centuries, this area was considered to be working-class because its residents mainly were employed in heavy industry and cotton mills located in the same place. However, after the 1970s most of the industry was dismissed that changed the local economy and life of the working-class community.

Now Todmorden is gentrified and has a mixed social composition. People belonging to different social classes live there. What is remarkable that this social hierarchy is visible in the landscape of the town and its surroundings. With friends, we enjoy walking in the countryside and hiking in the hills around Todmorden. Whenever we go up to the hills, I have a feeling that we move from the bottom to the top of the social hierarchy. If you have not stopped reading yet, I invite you to climb the hills together and see what can be found on the way.

At the bottom

In the valley, one can see a six-storey building of the Robinwood mill. This cotton mill was constructed at the beginning of the 19th century. Its owners also built around some housing blocks for workers and more beautiful villas for managers. The mill building looks brutal and stable. It was made of stone bricks and reconstructed several times. The front of the building has some traces of a fire. Locals say that somebody set fire to the mill to make money, and now some parts of the building are for sale.

IMG_2081.JPGThe Robinwood mill, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

And what’s about housing? In the valley, one can find old well-built houses where mainly pensioners live and some social housing blocks for workers. Houses for pensioners (some of them belong to a local working-class community) are of low height with solid walls of stone brick, nice chimneys, double-glazed windows, through which one can see pot plants and house cats. There are small gardens with rosebushes in front of these houses. Sometimes the residents hang laundry outside.

IMG_1121.JPGHousing in the valley, June 2018 © Photo by A. Vanke

Relatively ‘new’ social housing resembles by its architecture typical council estates in England. It is two-storey housing blocks with flat and gable roofs, simple facades, and windows of different sizes. If you have a look at a window, you may see lace curtains and fresh flowers in vintage vases. Some residents put English cross flags on their windows with expressing their national identity and white-and-blue flags, which meaning I could hardly ever get. Life of people living in the valley seems to be hard.

IMG_2073Social housing at the bottom of the hill, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

In the middle

Having looked around in the valley, we are going up to the hill. Several routes are leading to the top. Every time we explore a new route that allows us to know the local area better. The middle of the hill has picturesque views of the town with the cotton mill and small houses scattered in the valley. There are more trees and shadows here. At some point, you may realize that you are in the middle of nowhere. But soon you understand that the local middle class occupies this place on the hill.

IMG_2092.JPGHouses in the middle of the hill, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

This awareness comes, when you see another type of housing and small shiny cars of bright colours, red, yellow, white driving up and down the hill. I would say that houses in the middle are more diverse in design and style, but all of them have something in common. For example, middle-class houses are normally bigger than those we saw at the bottom. They may have more spacious yards and nicer gardens. If you come across local farms you will see that farmers usually have a piece of land near their houses.

IMG_2108A smiling horse, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

This land needs to be cultivated by tractors. And we met one friendly tractor driver cultivating lands of different farmers. According to locals, the life of farmers is far from easy today. They produce meat, milk, cheese, eggs, and other foodstuffs, and sell them in the town market. While we were wandering around the farms, we met nice animals:) smiling horses, sleepy cows, lazy sheep, curious ostriches, beautiful deer, cute ponies, and funny buffalos. From the middle of the hill, life seems to be pastoral but still hardworking.

IMG_6538.JPGA picturesque pastoral view, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

On the top

We keep on moving to the top. And what we find there? From the top of the hill, you will see picturesque panoramic views of the countryside with its beautiful fields, farms, other hills, and windmills. If you look more carefully you can notice villas hidden in the foliage of old trees. The villas are often surrounded by fences and sometimes by the barbed wire. Yes, exactly like this *Х*Х*Х*  That’s why it is quite problematic to understand what is happening there because villas are hidden from the public eye in contrast to the houses in the middle and at the bottom of the hill. However, you will feel the atmosphere at the top of the local social hierarchy.

IMG_2138.JPGThe bonsai garden, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

Villas on the top looks spacious and beautiful. Some of them resemble small castles surrounded by the piece of land which is not cultivated but used for the golf course or gardens. Some villas’ owners have greenhouses in their territories and decorate their yards with elegance and style. While we were going down, in one villa, I noticed a straw hat accurately laying on the garden armchair. In another one, a bonsai garden with accurately cut evergreens drew my attention. The people from the top of the hill drive Range Rover cars and keep dogs barking at passers-by.

IMG_2136.JPGRoofs of the houses, July 2019 © Photo by A. Vanke

I was thinking that life on the top might be aisé. However, barking dogs, fences and barbed wires were telling us that life was not easy there too.

Going down to earth

Our way back was much easier than to the top. When you are coming back you can see all types of houses in the distance. At that moment you may realize that social hierarchy exists and it is visible in the landscape. We were going down, down and down to earth, and finished our trip in the Golden Lion pub, a very popular local spot.

Тампере. Уютный город с индустриальной культурой

В первые дни декабря мне довелось побывать в уютном финском городе – бывшем промышленном центре Финляндии, известном сегодня как центр новых технологий, образования и науки. В Тампере я приехала на несколько дней для того, чтобы принять участие в семинаре “Маскулинности на границах”, который предполагал дискуссию по вопросам мужественности между финскими и российскими исследователями, художниками и активистами. Наш междисциплинарный семинар проходил в двух местах, в Музее индустриальной культуры Верстас и Музее Ленина, что повлияло на мое восприятие города.

Многослойный контекст пребывания в Тампере заставил задуматься о том, что может превратить промышленный город в удобное место для жизни и отдыха.

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Картонажная фабрика Тако. Фото Александрины Ваньке

Первое, что поражает, когда добираешься пешком за десять минут от вокзала до центра, – это то, что самая современная гостиница Sokos, в фойе которой постоянно толпятся туристы, расположена вблизи фабрики по производству картона. Из большого окна номера открывается вид на чудесный пруд и заводскую трубу, выпускающую клубы дыма. Здесь же около гостиницы находятся магазины, ночные клубы, бары, кафе и ресторанчики с вкусной едой и недорогими (по европейским меркам) ценами. С ними соседствуют бывшие фабричные здания, помещения которых сейчас заняты парикмахерскими, офисами и художественными мастерскими. Но это далеко не все! В этом же пространстве вы найдете пристань с красивыми маленькими яхтами, палубы которых присыпаны белым снежком.

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Вид на реку Таммеркоски. Фото Александрины Ваньке

Обилие такого количества разнородных объектов инфраструктуры в одном месте удивительным образом создает в Тампере комфортную городскую среду, что приводит в восторг туристов.

Стоит пройти немного наверх от пристани и пространство поменяет свою конфигурацию. По мере удаления от центра улицы расширяются и образуют прямые линии, а в жилых кварталах дома новой постройки перемежаются со зданиями бывших ткацких фабрик, построенных в XIX веке из красного кирпича. В последних сегодня размещаются салоны красоты и студии дизайна. И если оказаться на одной из таких линий, например, на улице Papinkatu, то в одном ее конце можно увидеть церковь, а в другом – парк и бухту. Удивительно, как отдыхают глаза, когда смотришь на водную гладь и тонкие льдинки. И в этом почти безлюдном месте может произойти нечто неожиданное. Например, можно встретить красивого финского зайца, который любезно согласится попозировать на камеру.

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Финский заяц на фоне бывшей ткацкой фабрики. Фото Александрины Ваньке

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Южный парк и бухта Вииниканлахти. Фото Александрины Ваньке

Сбалансированная экосистема и здоровая природная среда, по отношению к которой местные жители проявляют заботу, добавляет гармонии спокойному ритму жизни Тампере.

Вместе с тем, живая интеллектуальная среда с прогрессивными идеями в области социальных наук оставляет ощущение открытости и создает свободное пространство для кросс-культурных обменов и множественных интерпретаций. Невероятная атмосфера Тампере, задаваемая структурой урбанистического пространства, помогла, на мой взгляд, и участникам семинара “Маскулинности на границах” найти точки соприкосновения и осознать важность трансграничного диалога. Ведь осмысляя другого по ту сторону границы, мы лучше узнаем себя.